In Britain one thinks of fly fishing as anglers with chest high waders fishing rivers for trout or salmon. However world wide this technique, in various forms is also used to catch steelhead, pike, perch, walleye, bass,and catfish.
The idea is to catch fish with manmade flies which are cast with a specially designed rod and fly line. The flies are made in different sizes, colours and patterns to replicate the natural food of the fish you are trying to catch. Hair, fur, feathers and synthetic materials are all used.
Unlike normal casting, fly fishing can be thought of as casting the line as opposed to the lure. There are various casting techniques but the idea is to allow the entirety of the line to unfurl parallel to the water's surface. As the fisherman becomes more experienced, the accuracy and length of cast is increased. Dry fly fishing is where the fly is kept on the surface whereas wet-fly fishing has fly is below the surface
This is very popular in the UK and Europe. Fish targeted include carp, pike, perch, ream, rudd, tench. There are two basic techniques - float fishing where the bait is suspended under a float - and legering where the bait is held on the river bed or lake bottom by a weight.
Most coarse fishing is purely for pleasure - just to enjoy a relaxing days fishing. However there are angling matches where anglers gather at a venue to catch as many fish as possible in allotted time. There is also specimen hunting where the fisherman can wait for days, even weeks targeting a particular species to weigh and photograph, hoping for a personal best.